5 – MICROBIOLOGY-TECHNOLOGY          The Science Of Meat & Cultures

5 – MICROBIOLOGY-TECHNOLOGY The Science Of Meat & Cultures

Ya say you’re frightened by the latest news on ebola? Well, read on. The magical, microscopic world of Microbiology can be your friend, but if you aren’t careful, it can be your worst enemy.


Read. Post! Be merry, for tomorrow you… uh… live long and prosper, if you understand just a smidgen of this stuff. Please share those questions and answers with everyone else. You might say, we’re dying to know!

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93 thoughts on “5 – MICROBIOLOGY-TECHNOLOGY The Science Of Meat & Cultures

  1. How Salt Is Measured In Brine

    If the salt in the sea could be removed and spread evenly over the Earth’s land surface, it would form a layer more than 500 feet thick. Seawater averages 3.5% salt. When a cubic foot of seawater evaporates, it yields about 2.2 pounds of salt. In contrast, the fresh water in Lake Michigan contains only one one-hundredth (0.01) of a pound of salt in a cubic foot. That’s merely one sixth of an ounce. This means that seawater is 220 times saltier than the fresh lake water in Lake Michigan.

    The salinity of saltwater is measured in parts per thousand and the symbol 0/00 (parts per thousand), is used. For instance, the salinity of the Dead Sea (the world’s most salty endorheic body of water) is 30.4% or 304 0/00 meaning there are 304 pounds of salt in 1,000 pounds of its water. The level remains practically constant, unlike the Great Salt Lake in Utah where the water has a variable salt content between 8 and 27% or 270 0/00 in its heaviest concentration.
    Why… my goodness, the water is so buoyant in that ol’ lake that I’ve see horseshoes float on the surface!

    Using A Salinometer

    The only way to produce unvarying and consistent hams or other brined products, is to use a salinometer to detect the exact amount of salt in a brine. There is no “universal” or common brine, but there are general, suggested strengths. A floating glass salinometer tube has a stem marked by degrees from 1 to 100. One degree indicates only 0.264% salt and merely 0.022 pounds of salt per gallon. At the far end of the scale, 100 degrees indicates 26.395% salt and 2.986 pounds of salt per gallon. To strengthen the brine, simply add salt. To weaken it, add more water.
    There is an old conventional and generally accepted rule that recommends using enough brine water to equal fifty percent of the meat’s weight.In other words, for a 12 pound ham, six pounds of brine water will suffice. This means the container must be a bit “snug” and perhaps even shaped like the product. Some recommended strengths are:

    Poultry 21° (salinometer) degrees – 8 hours
    Ribs 50° (salinometer) degrees – 3 days
    Bacon 50-65° (salinometer) degrees – 1.5 days per lb.
    Canadian Bacon Loins 65° (salinometer) degrees – 5 days
    Hams & Shoulders 70° (salinometer) degrees – 1 day per lb.
    Fish 80° (salinometer) degrees – 2 hours

    A U.S. gallon of fresh water weighs 8.33 pounds. The maximum amount of salt it can hold (under normal circumstances at 60°F. (15°C.) is 26.4% (called the “saturation point”). Thus, one gallon of saturated brine contains 2.64 lbs. of salt and weighs 10.03 pounds.

    If you unearth a great recipe and wish to know the strength of the brine, find the percent of salt by weight in the solution by weighing the salt and adding the weight of the water. Multiply the sum by 100%. Locate the percentage on a “Salinometer Brine Tables Chart (on the internet or accompanying your salinometer purchase) in the center column – the percent of salt by weight. The corresponding left side column gives us the number of Salinometer DEGREES, and the right side column, the number of pounds of salt per gallon of water.

    Yup Pards! Its just like meetin’ a bear on a tightrope. There is just no getting around it! If you want consistent results with your meat products, you’ll find the use of a salinometer is essential.

    Best wishes,

  2. Technology Behind Brining Fish Prior To Smoking (P.1)

    Have you ever wondered why fish spoil so quickly? Although most bacteria in fish are found in their digestive tracts and in the slime covering their skins, fish retain an unusually high concentration of bacteria. Surprisingly, both freshwater and saltwater fish sustain incredibly low percentages of salt in their meat, some with as little as one-fifth of one percent. Additionally, fish contain up to 80% water as opposed to beef having only about 60%. With such low levels of salt and high concentrations of water, the Aw reduction requires more time – perfect conditions for the development of brochotrix thermosphacta, pseudomonas spp.(species), or other spoilage bacteria. And make no mistake, fish are just as susceptible of carrying the deadly toxins of clostidium botulinum as any other meat or food.

    In modern times, with refrigeration widely available, few cultures continue the practice of heavily salting fish for long-term storage in barrels or other containers, to be re-hydrated later for consumption. Yet, salt brining and smoking remain popular mostly because of the wonderful textures and flavors produced. Salt brining also improves the strength of the meat as it is hung to dry. Brining is more thorough than simple salting as liquid penetration reaches into every possible cavity. Finally, brining is essential in controlling the growth of bacteria until the meat drops below Aw .85.

    Any brining solution of about 70% is considered sufficiently strong for fish brining. For better penetration, many folks use a weaker 50 or 60% solution for a longer period of time. SausageMaker™ Rytek Kutas made his very strong fish brine at 90° salinity. I’ve lightened up his recipe a little (to 80°) to avoid the traces of salt left behind on the surface of the fillets. An hour’s time is plenty for fillets an inch thick. Soak thicker fish two hours.

    I think you’ll like this recipe. First select a brine strength. (I’d suggest an 80° SAL strength to begin with). Column 1 is SAL degrees (strength) at 60°F. Column 2 is salt in grams per liter. Column 3 is salt in pounds per gallon, and Column 4 is salt percent by weight. I always chuckled at Rytek’s strong brine because he would add so much salt it would leave a film even after it was soaked and rinsed. He often used a brine of more than 80° SAL for fish (almost 90° SAL). It’s just the way he liked his smoked fish (he snacked on it all day). I like Stan Marianski’s approach of using a lighter but effective brine. Be sensible with strong fish brine. The stuff works quickly and you just don’t need lengthy brining periods for cold smoking (and only half as long for hot smoking). Half-inch fillets only need about half an hour. Fillets an inch thick need about an hour and inch-and-a-half fillets only require about 2 hours brining. (Remember for hot-smoking, these times are cut in half).

    Don’t confuse fish brines for much lighter poultry brines. The typical brine for smaller birds is only about 22° SAL. but they are used for a much longer period of time.

    (Continued in next post)

  3. Technology Behind Brining Fish Prior To Smoking (P.2)

    Column 1 is SAL degrees (strength).
    Column 2 is salt in grams per liter.
    Column 3 is salt in pounds per gallon.
    Column 4 is salt percent by weight.

    10……….. 26.4 gr. ……….0.2 lbs. ……….2.6 %
    20……….. 53.8 gr. ……….0.5 lbs. ……….5.3 %
    30…………79.2 gr. ……….0.7 lbs. ……….8.0 %
    40……….105.6 gr. ……….1.0 lbs. ……….10.5 %
    50……….132.0 gr. ……….1.3 lbs. ……….13.2 %
    60……….158.4 gr. ……….1.6 lbs. ……….15.9 %
    70……….184.8 gr. ……….1.9 lbs. ……….18.5 %
    80……….211.2 gr. ……….2.2 lbs. ……….21.1 %
    90……….237.6 gr. ……….2.6 lbs. ……….23.8 %
    100………264.0 gr. ……….3.0 lbs. ……….26.4 %

    Great Salt Lake “Yoo-Taw Cold Smoked Tuna”

    Now pards, it is rumored by certain half-smilin’ and truth-stretching local desperados, that huge, seven foot, Great Salt Lake Nocturnal Tuna Fish roam freely about the shore of Antelope Island on warm nights with a full moon shining. Walking upright upon their tail fins about midnight, these critters have been known to audibly replicate and mimic shouting cowboys with drawn-out, bone-chillin’, high-pitched screams of “yoo-taw”. Yes, yes… so often does this rare nerve-rattling phenomenon occur, that the Great Salt Lake Tuna has become known as the Yoo-Taw Tuna Fish. And that’s not all! It seems there is so much salt in the lake that the fish are no longer able to submerge. In fact, their hides have become so toughened by all that salty saline solution, they’re very much in demand as “fish leather”… giving all the bulls and cows out here, fits of jealousy!

    Clean fish (of your choice) fillets are placed in kosher salt four days covered and refrigerated. (Some types of fish are not recommended for smoking. See the note below.)
    After 4 days, remove them from the salt and soak the fillets four hours in fresh cold water. Change the water then soak the fillets in fresh, refrigerated (38°F. / 3°C.) water mixed with the following ingredients for two hours:

    Brine Recipe:
    1 gallon of water
    3 ounces Prague Powder #1
    juice of 3 lemons
    1 ounce brown sugar
    3 ounces uniodized salt
    1 ounce crushed black pepper
    1 ounce bay leaves

    Rinse and drain the fish well and then place them into your smokehouse with the screened air inlet open to help dry them. They must be dry to take on smoke. Remember, the temperature inside the smokehouse must not exceed 80°F. (27°C.). When the fillets have developed a pellicle and are dry to the touch, introduce a trickle of alder smoke, maintaining the temperature of 80°F. (27°C.) inside the smoker. Cold-smoke the fillets at least a week.

    Note: Fish-smokin’ landlubbers like me should be aware that Scombroid (fish) poisoning is most commonly reported with mackerel, tuna, mahi-mahi, bonito, sardines, anchovies, and related species of fish that were inadequately refrigerated or improperly preserved after being caught. Uncured and mishandled fish can produce toxic histamines. If I remember correctly, scombroid mackerel after only one day (unless it is cured) produces toxic histamines. If you wish to smoke mackerel, yank on my chain anytime and I’ll post more information. If you’d like info on fish (hot) smoking and how to use a brining chart and salinometer, see this link: http://wedlinydomowe.pl/en/viewtopic.php?p=268#268

    Best Wishes,

  4. Smoke! (P.1)
    Woods Used For Smoking Meats

    Acacia is similar to mesquite but not as strong. Acacia should be used in small amounts or for limited amounts of time.
    Alder has a light flavor that works well with fish and poultry. Alder is the traditional choice for smoking Salmon.
    Almond is similar to pecan and give a nutty, sweet flavor to meat.
    Apple is mild and sweet in flavor and is often used with poultry and pork. Apple smoke will cause chicken skin to turn dark brown in color. Nevertheless, it remains one of the most popular woods for smoking.
    Apricot is similar to hickory but is sweeter and milder in flavor. It’s great for poultry and pork.
    Ash burns quickly and has a light, unique flavor.
    Black Walnut has a bitter, heavy flavor and should be mixed with other wood.
    Birch has a flavor similar to maple and is good with pork and poultry.
    Cherry has a sweet, mild flavor that goes well with any meat and many other foods. Cherry is one of the most popular woods for smoking.
    Chokecherry has a bitter flavor and should be used in small amounts for short period of times.
    Citrus woods (lemon or orange) give a light, fruity flavor milder than apple or cherry.
    Cottonwood is very nice and an old favorite of many people. It’s mild in flavor and may be used with stronger flavored woods if desired. Avoid “green “ cottonwood.
    Crabapple is similar to apple wood and may be used interchangeably.
    Fruit, like apple, apricot or cherry, fruit wood gives off a sweet, mild flavor that is good with poultry or ham. It may be quite “sooty”.
    Grapefruit is a mild wood that produces a good, smoky flavor for any meat.
    Grapevines make a lot of tart smoke. It’s fruity but sometimes heavy and acrid. Use it sparingly with poultry or lamb.
    Hickory is everyones’ favorite and adds a unique, strong flavor to all meats.
    Lemon is a mild wood that produces a good, smoky flavor for any meat.
    Lilac produces mild, sweet smoke for smoked cheese, poultry, and pork.
    Maple smoke gives a sweet flavor to poultry and ham.
    Mesquite burns hot and quickly. It is popular for short-term grilling but not recommended for barbecuing or for smoking sausages. It is probably the strongest flavored wood of all types.
    Mulberry is sweet and similar to applewood.
    Nectarine is similar to hickory but sweeter and milder in flavor. Good used with poultry and pork.
    Oak is possibly the most versatile of all hardwoods, strong but not overpowering, and a fine choice for beef or lamb.
    Orange is a mild, smoky-flavored wood used on any meat.
    Peach is similar to hickory but is sweeter and milder in flavor and is a nice choice used for poultry and pork.
    Pear produces a sweet, mild flavor similar to apple wood.
    Pecan has been called “mild hickory”, burns cool, providing a more delicate flavor.
    Plum is similar to hickory but sweeter and milder in flavor. Great choice for poultry and pork.
    Walnut has a heavy, smoky flavor and should be mixed with more mildly flavored woods.

    Other lesser-known woods safely used for smoking include: avocado, bay, beech, butternut, carrotwood, chestnut, fig, guava, gum, hackberry, kiawe, madrone, manzita, olive, range, persimmon, pimento, and willow.

    Moisten hardwood sawdust well ahead of burning time, but do not soak it until it is dripping wet. Turn the hot plate to high until smoldering begins, then turn the heat down until it produces only a constant trickle of smoke. Moistened wood is not as acrid and produces a better tasting sausage. As a rule, any hardwood free of resin (or sap) is generally good for smoking food. If the tree produces edible fruit or nuts, the wood is typically good for smoking.

    (Continued in next post)

  5. Smoke! (P.2)
    Woods To AVOID For Smoking Meats


    Please avoid any chemically-treated or processed wood when smoking food. Numerous arsenates, borates, silicates, coppers, pesticides, and other substances, have routinely been placed into wood as preservatives, insecticides, and who knows what else. In many cases, when “treated” wood (lumber) is burned, the smoke may become toxic and dangerous. Never use processed lumber to smoke any food.

    It’s important to remember that smoke penetrates meat much faster at higher temperatures. A case in point may be a sausage perfectly smoked at 120° F (50° C) for 4 hours. The same sausage may acquire a bitter, over-smoked flavor if smoked at 250° F (120° C) for the same length of time.

    Best Wishes,

    1. Does anyone here remember when you were a kid and sneaked out behind the barn to smoke some cedar bark with your cousin? Shucks, had it been lilac “bark”, we might have picked up a bad habit!
      I believe the DUCK was probably smokin’ eucalyptus bark back then… explaining his mystifying and esotericbehavior today!

  6. This is one great source of knowledge.(rigor mortis) CW can you go over the time you ate fresh venison, when you a kid and got sick and why. Also does this apply to other meat such as duck ect. I was out and came home to find Dan had cooked a fresh duck breast. Really did not if it was safe or not.

    1. Good to hear from you Mike ol’ pal. Hope all is going well. Thank for asking about this post as information concerning meat at morbidity is an important topic and should be discussed more often to protect inexperienced hunters. Allow me to “back up” slightly and re-introduce a little information about proteins. This will help folks understand rigor mortis. First, maybe we should ask the question, “What Is Meat And Why Does Salt Change Pork Into Ham? “

      Amino Acids And Proteins

      Have you ever wondered what meat is made of? To begin with, it’s about 75% water. Another 20% is made of biological molecules called proteins. And just what is a protein? Without being overly complicated in a sausage forum, let’s just say that when organic compounds made from “amines” and “carboxylic acid” are put together, “chains” of something called “amino acids” are formed and their sequence dictates how proteins are shaped into a three-dimensional structure. This “nucleotide sequence” of their genes results in “folding” and determines its activity. And what activity! These little guys called proteins, have a herculean task to perform. They catalyze metabolic reactions, replicate DNA, respond to stimuli, and transport molecules from one location to another.

      Back to amino acids for just a moment. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and there are only about 500 known “classifications” or groups called alpha, beta, gamma, or delta. Amino acid “chains” in the form of proteins, comprise the second largest component (after water) of human muscles, cells and other tissues. These are the basic molecules of living tissue; the building blocks of life – whether it’s in the deer you shoot, the cow you carve into steaks, or the hog you grind into sausage. Indeed, in the proteins of all mammals, amino acids perform critical roles in life processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis.

      Okay, that only adds up to about 95% you may say. Well, we still must account for fat, glycogen (glucose sugar) and vitamins and minerals. Varying greatly from animal to animal, the fat content is somewhere around 3%. The other components listed account for only about 1% each.
      Now, we said meat is about ¾ water. Does this pertain to fat also? No, fat contains only about ten to fifteen percent water. This explains why a mature cow, having more fat, has proportionally less water.

      (Continued in next post)

    2. Page 2

      Change In Protein Structure At Morbidity

      When I was young and crazy (instead of old and foolish), I took careful aim at a rack of antlers wearing a deer, and released the arrow. What a trophy! I could hardly wait to sink my teeth into a fresh deer steak. By the time I had field dressed the animal, cleaned up a little, and packed the deer out of the deep canyon I was in, several hours had gone by and I was hungry. I had dried food in my fanny pack but I wanted some real venison for dinner! My ol’ Daddy had warned me many times about eating a freshly killed animal in the stages of post mortem rigor, but I was on my own this year and I wanted meat for an evening meal! I had heard all the jokes about rigor mortis and frankly, I just didn’t give the matter much thought. So, having packed that animal halfway out of Timber Canyon, I build a campfire and re-sharpened my 6” Randall. After a few coals had burned down to glowing embers, I laid a steak on them and sprinkled it with a little salt. Oh my goodness, that steak smelled good! It was marvelous. I must have had a smile stuck to my face like a burro grinnin’ in a cactus patch… all the way out of the canyon… Uhh, that is right up until about the time I arrived at the ranch, quickening my step, and making a beeline for the porcelin “comfort convenience”! Now, I’m not going to bother you with the “details” other than to mention I spent the best part of the next three days “reminiscing” whilst on that porcelain privy! I had learned one of life’s lessons the hard way. Man was not meant to consume flesh while it is yet in the state of rigor mortis.

      In humans, following death, rigor mortis commences after about three hours, reaches maximum stiffness during the subsequent 12 hours, and gradually dissipates until approximately 48 to 60 hours after death. On the other hand, in the species Cervidae (deer), chemical changes occur as the heart stops, the flow of blood ceases, oxygen is no longer carried to the muscles, and the meat begins to stiffen as rigor mortis sets in. Its duration differs in various animals but in deer, the onset of rigor may require considerably more time – up to 24 hours – and its duration may be up to two weeks. During this “aging” period of time, the carcass is usually hung at a low temperature and a nice protective coating of flaky, white, penicillium nalgiovense mold (one of many genera of ascomyetous fungi), is most welcome. Deer hunters should note that the temperature of the meat before rigor mortis sets in should not drop below about 50° F., or the meat will become tough when later cooked. However, upon the onset of rigor and during the aging process, the carcass should be cooled and kept within the range of 30° – 40° F. It is important to note that during this “aging” period of rigor mortis, the meat should not be processed and consumed. Leave the stuff alone and go play golf until the meat surpasses the rigor mortis stage.

      (Continued in next post)

    3. Page 3

      Oh yes Mike, you asked the question: “Does this apply to other meat such as duck etc.” [I came home to find] Dan had cooked a fresh duck breast. Really did not [know] if it was safe or not. The answer is yes. All meat proteins should “cool” and “age” (according to species) for a time.

      It is interesting to note that in her splendid wisdom, Mother Nature has allowed us a “quick processing” time period immediately following an animal’s death. If the preparation is done without delay following slaughter, the meat may be processed without complications. Indeed, in large commercial plants, slaughtering and processing take place within the same building or facility in very short time. Now you know why meat that we purchase in a supermarket has been “aged” by a commercial packing house.

      Denaturing Proteins

      Denaturation occurs when proteins are exposed to disruptive physical forces such as heat in cooking, or “kneading” a sausage mixture, or by the introduction of chemicals such as alcohol. A common example of a denatured protein is the albumin in an egg as it becomes hard-boiled with the introduction of heat. The gelatinous egg albumin becomes solid.

      Proteins are large molecules composed of amino acids, which are arranged in a variety of complex structures. The “primary protein structure” is the simple linear sequence of amino acids within the protein. The “secondary protein structure” is divided into subgroups identified by three shapes. The “alpha helix” looks like a spiral staircase and is a structural protein. The “beta-pleated sheet” looks just like its name implies. The “random coil” does not have a specifically defined shape and this is the one found in collagen although it may link together alpha helices and beta sheets so that proteins may contain all three secondary structures.

      Proteins also adopt a tertiary (third in order or formation) structure that is achieved by looping and folding the chain over itself. This folded structure occurs because certain portions of the molecules have an affinity for water. From here, the explanation gets overly scientific for us sausagemakin’ wranglers. Suffice it to say, when a protein is denatured, the molecule’s tertiary structure is corrupted, and this disruption affects the molecule’s secondary (helical) structure without altering its primary structure. In other words, denaturation does not break any of the primary chemical bonds that link one amino acid to another but it changes the way the protein folds in upon itself. Denaturation occurs when proteins are exposed to strong acids or bases, high concentrations of inorganic salts, or organic solvents such as alcohol. In addition, heat or even irradiation can cause denaturation.

      (Continued in next post)

    4. Page 4

      Now, here’s the kicker! Whenever the three-dimensional structure of the protein is disrupted, the molecule’s biological activity is affected and sometimes the effects may even be detrimental with side effects. Some denatured proteins can result in illness or even death. (Ever hear of “Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy”)? However, not all denaturing processes are harmful, and indeed, certain denaturing processes are even beneficial. Remember the “boiled egg”? And what about that sticky meat mass we made with our hands by mixing sausage until the myocin and actin “developed”? It’s pretty much vital to good texture in sausage? Without the development of actomyocin by the proteins actin and myocin, our sausage would literally fall apart.

      In the sausage-making world, we have yet another concern with protein development. Does alcohol denature the proteins in meat? The answer is unquestionably yes. To see for yourself, try making a burger from meat that has had alcohol added to it. It just won’t bind together. On the other hand, does it leave flavor behind? Absolutely! My favorite breakfast sausage is Italian Red Wine Sausage. What a flavor! Yes, somewhere there is a proper balance and there must be prudence and good judgment used.

      Mike, you recently made some Canadian Bacon. It really isn’t bacon at all. It’s ham… or a ham-like product. (Only the rear leg of the piggy is considered “ham”.) You observed first-hand that when increased amounts of salt are added to pork, it impacts proteins and serves as a preservative through dehydration and the osmotic pressure produced inhibits bacterial growth. Salt has always been the primary ingredient used in meat curing and even in low concentrations, it has some preservative action. In the production of ham from pork, critical lipolytic and oxidative changes must occur and the degree and nature of proteolysis in dry-cured ham varies according to climate, temperature, and humidity. Actually it’s not as technical as it sounds and is one of the tastiest pork products you can make. So, shop for another nice pork loin and a box of “kosher” salt at the grocery store and we’ll make those Canadians nervous!

      Best Wishes,

  7. Chicken – Infected with Salmonella and Campylobacter – November 2014

    Did you know that salmonella in chicken causes more than 1.2 million illnesses and 450 deaths in the U.S. each year? Additionally, 1.3 million Americans every year are sickened by food borne Campylobacter. These are CDC figures and although Maurice Pitesky, DVM, MPVM, reports that illness from salmonella have actually dropped about 9% since 2010, but reported cases of campylobacter have risen 13% since 2006, according to the CDC. Americans each eat an estimated 84 pounds of chicken per year, according to the National Chicken Council. (That’s up from just 33 pounds in 1965.)

    So, how much chicken is infected? Campylobacter was found in 43% of raw chicken breasts purchased in supermarkets, and salmonella in nearly 11%, according to a 2013 independent analysis by Consumer Reports. How can this happen? Chicken flocks can become infected in the henhouse, picking up the pathogens from fecal waste or tainted water. Those infected with campylobacter may show no symptoms, but may later contaminate meat during the slaughtering process.

    Once you get the bird home, be sure to store it properly. Refrigerate it below 40 degrees F, and either cook it or freeze it within a day or two. Chilling slows bacterial growth, while freezing can reduce the amount of campylobacter (but not salmonella). Six of 10 families place poultry packages directly into the fridge or freezer, where poultry juices can come into contact with shelves or even other food. Why not use a separate wrap? And please use a separate cutting board designated for poultry, meat and fish. Cutting foods you eat raw, such as salad vegetables, on the same surface can easily contaminate them. And oh yes… never allow kids to handle raw poultry. Many parents encourage children to help with cooking, but it’s a bad idea when it comes to chicken! Kids are especially vulnerable to food poisoning. Never use the same utensils for raw and cooked poultry. If you’re cooking on the grill, remember to use a clean tongs and plate when it’s ready to serve. And cook chicken thoroughly. It should reach 165 degrees F, including any stuffing if you’re cooking it in the bird. So, wash your hands and stay healthy wranglers! I’ve had campylobacter poisoning and was hospitalized. It is not enjoyable and most of those doctors have no sense of humor!

    Best Wishes,

  8. Well CW, Here’s a problem for you to double check me. this took me about 3 days 2 figure out so go easy on me. not sure why i did this except there are 52,621 people giving 52,619 different answers to how much, how long, ppm, % to pump.ect…. so I think this is how to figure it using the math so I know. 1st I will give you the (what i think) is the needed info. Terget ( same as target but said by a cowboy) is 150 ppm. There are 3785 g in a gal of water. there is .0625 nitrate in sure cure. So now the formula. 150 x 3785= 567750 / 1,000,000 =.56775. now we divid our .56775 nitrite by our .0625 = 9.084 . I will call this the magic # 4 a brine consisting of 150ppm per gal of water. you want a 10% pump divide 9.084 by .1 = 90.84 g, 20% would be 9.084/.2 = 45.42g, 30% = 30.28 and so on. 7% pump would contain 129.77g. So if this is right I will continue to the next question but first my brain needs a rest and a couple aspirin. Maybe even a word or two with the curing gods

  9. Oh, Give Me A Home… Where The Buffalo Roam… and I’ll Show You A Really, Really, Dirty House!

    Grain-fed bison contains merely 12% fat, or if the animal has been range fed, a maximum of only ten per cent fat. Buffalo may be substituted for beef in any recipe although it cooks more rapidly containing less fat. Bison is a great source of protein, niacin, vitamins B6 and B12, iron, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc as well as other vitamins and minerals. Three ounces of the meat is considered one serving and each pound of cooked meat will provide about four servings. The key to preparing a buffalo roast properly is to cook it slowly over low heat. Steaks are another matter entirely. Cook them as you would good New York strip steaks, rare or medium rare only, searing the outside with a little salty crust holding the natural juices in the pink, tender meat inside.

  10. I spotted this article in a European “health” newspaper:

    Health officials in Belgium have reported that at least 14 people have been infected with the parasitic nematode worm Trichinella after eating wild boar meat at three different restaurants in early November.

    So far, seven patients have shown antibodies to the parasite and first stage larvae have been found in muscle biopsies from three of them. Genetic analysis has identified the species responsible for the infection as Trichinella spiralis.

    The source of the parasite has been identified as imported wild boar meat originating from a supplier in Girona, Spain. The Belgian Federal Agency for the Security of the Food Chain (FASFC) has recalled the meat, which is vacuum-packed and may be either fresh or frozen, and samples are now being examined.

    Follow the rules kids! If you shoot a boar, be sure to follow the USDA-FSIS regs about DEEP freezing. Simply freezing the meat in your home freezer won’t do the job.

    Best Wishes,

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